publius cornelius scipio aemilianus africanus

Scipio appears or is mentioned in passing in Cicero's De Republica and De Amicitia, and in Silius Italicus' Punica (Cicero was mentored by prominent Romans whose ancestors had been associated with Scipio). Metellus Scipio was the last Scipio to distinguish himself militarily or politically. Carthage, and especially Hannibal himself, had long relied upon these superb natural horsemen, who would now fight for Rome against Carthage. They ultimately dethroned Syphax, and ensured Prince Masinissa's coronation as King of the Numidians. In addition to supplying the Numidian cavalry (on which see the Battle of Cannae), Numidia operated as a buffer for vulnerable Carthage. [citation needed] As Lucius was in the act of producing his account-books, his brother wrested them from his hands, tore them in pieces, and flung them on the floor of the Senate house. In addition, the Sicilian garrison also contained many of the troops who had participated in the Sicilian campaigns of Marcus Claudius Marcellus. Scipio's objective was, therefore, to quickly eliminate one of the armies to give him the luxury of dealing with the other two piecemeal. Hij raakte bevriend met de Griekse officier Polybius, die behoorde tot de 1000 Griekse gijzelaars die na de Romeinse overwinning bij Pydna naar Rome werden overgebracht. Als censor in 142 v.Chr. From these men, Scipio was able to muster a highly motivated and very experienced force for his African invasion. Of these, Polybius was the closest to Scipio Africanus in age and in connections, but his narrative may be biased by his friendship with Scipio's close relatives and that the primary source of his information about Africanus came from one of his best friends, Gaius Laelius. His defeat of Hannibal at Zama paved the way for Carthage's eventual destruction in 146 BC. The battle was decided by a determined Roman infantry charge up the centre of the Carthaginian position. At the same time, Hannibal Barca and his army were recalled to Carthage, and despite the moderate terms offered to Carthage by Scipio, Carthage suddenly suspended negotiations and again prepared for war. Even Plutarch's account of Scipio's life, written much later, has been lost. moderation] of Scipio' was a stock motif in exemplary literature and art,[30] as was the 'Dream of Scipio', portraying his allegorical choice between Virtue and Luxury. They had at least one surviving son (of whom more below). A.D., Valerius Maximus, Livy, 35.14 from Plutarch also recounts this conversation in Life of Titus Flamininus, 21.3–4, "Giulio Licinio | The Continence of Scipio | NG643.2 | The National Gallery, London", "Raphael | An Allegory ('Vision of a Knight') | NG213 | The National Gallery, London", "How to get good generals in Centurion: Defender of Rome? On hearing that Lucius Caecilius Metellus and other young nobles were planning to go overseas to serve some king, Scipio stormed into the meeting, and at sword-point, forced all present to swear that they would not abandon Rome. Daar hadden de Romeinen zware verliezen geleden tegen de Iberiërs. Dit was de oorzaak van de Derde Punische Oorlog. Publius Cornelius Scipio was born by Caesarean section[2] into the Scipio branch of the gens Cornelia. The possibility exists that he was returned to Rome and laid to rest there in a still undiscovered crypt. Scipio realized that the Carthaginian forces—especially the superior Numidian cavalry—would prove decisive against the largely infantry forces of the Roman legions. Hoewel hij geen sympathisant was van de conservatieven, was hij tegen de hervormingen die de gebroeders Gracchus door wilden voeren teneinde lage graanprijzen voor de stadsbevolking te bewerkstelligen. The Roman historian Valerius Maximus, writing in the first century AD, alleged that Scipio Africanus had a weakness for beautiful women, and knowing this, some of his soldiers presented him with a beautiful young woman captured in New Carthage. The forces stationed in Sicily at this time included a variety of forces. He conquered the Carthaginian territory of Iberia for Rome, although the two Iberian provinces were not fully pacified for a couple of centuries. His main achievements were during the Second Punic War. However, a grandson (adopted into the plebeian-noble Caecilii Metelli) became the Metellus Scipio who allied himself with Pompey the Great and Cato the Younger, and who opposed Julius Caesar. His younger daughter's last surviving child Sempronia, wife and then widow of Scipio Aemilianus, was alive as late as 102 BC. Despite a Roman victory, Scipio was unable to hinder the Carthaginian march to Italy. His other known grandson Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio was far more conservative than his Gracchi cousins. In this way, Scipio created a trained nucleus of cavalry for his African campaign. The younger daughter was more famous in history; Cornelia Africana Minor, the young wife of the elderly Tiberius Gracchus Major or Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, tribune of the plebs, praetor, then consul 177 (then censor and consul again), became the mother of 12 children, the only surviving sons being the famous Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus. Adoptie was niet ongebruikelijk in het oude Rome. verzette hij zich tegen de groeiende decadentie en immoraliteit in Rome. The relatives of Scipio continued to dominate the republic for a couple of generations. The victory was one of the feats that earned him the agnomen he is best known for: Africanus. He returned the woman to her fiancé, along with the money that had been offered by her parents to ransom her. Het jaar daarop trad hij op als onderhandelaar tussen de Numidische koning Massinissa en de Carthagers, die zich, vijftig jaar na het einde van de Tweede Punische Oorlog, hersteld hadden en de bedreigingen van Massinissa uiteindelijk beantwoordden met geweld. Scipio's humanitarian conduct toward prisoners and hostages in Hispania helped in portraying the Romans as liberators as opposed to conquerors. The victory was one of the feats that earned him the agnomen he is best known for: Africanus. Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal had meanwhile marched for Italy, and in 206 BC Scipio himself, having secured the Roman occupation of Hispania by the capture of Gades, gave up his command and returned to Rome. His birth year is calculated from statements made by ancient historians (mainly Livy and Polybius) of how old he was when certain events in his life occurred and must have been 236/5 BC, usually stated as circa 236 BC.[3]. Hannibal could boast a strength of around forty thousand: 36,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry, compared to Scipio's 29,000 infantry and 6,100 cavalry. When the Scipiones returned to Rome, two tribunes prosecuted (187 BC) Lucius on the grounds of misappropriation of money received from Antiochus. Publius Cornelius Scipio was the title character of a number of Italian operas composed during the baroque period of music, including settings by George Frideric Handel, Leonardo Vinci, and Carlo Francesco Pollarolo. Drie jaar later wist hij zich succesvol te verzetten tegen de beschuldigingen van hoogverraad. [citation needed]. Scipio, already known for his bravery and patriotism, was elected unanimously and the Tribunes abandoned their opposition. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (/ˈskɪpioʊ/; 236/235–183 BC) was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the best military commanders and strategists of all time. [4][5], Scipio joined the Roman struggle against Carthage in the first year of the Second Punic War when his father was consul. 1st cent. He and his descendants all became increasingly conservative, in stark contrast to the father and grandfathers. Now deserted by its allies and surrounded by a veteran and undefeated Roman army, Carthage began opening diplomatic channels for negotiation. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 14 jul 2020 om 15:13. Polybius suggested that people had only said that Scipio had supernatural powers because they had not appreciated the natural mental gifts which facilitated Scipio's achievements.[18]. In 203 BC, he destroyed the combined armies of the Carthaginians and Numidians by approaching by stealth and setting fire to their camp, where the combined army became panicked and fled, when they were mostly killed by Scipio's army. Scipio's army then marched towards Hannibal's veterans, who had not yet taken part in the battle. Scipio quickly dispatched his two lieutenants, Laelius and Masinissa, to pursue Syphax. Scipio was welcomed back to Rome in triumph with the agnomen of Africanus. Polybius' geschiedschrijving geldt als zeer betrouwbaar; hij schreef kennelijk om de Grieken bekender te maken met de Romeinse militaire geschiedenis. Scipio Nasica rose to many of the dignities enjoyed by his late father-in-law, and was noted for his staunch (if ultimately futile) opposition to Cato the Censor over the fate of Carthage from about 157 to 149 BC. [19] He lived there for the rest of his life, revealing his great magnanimity[citation needed] by attempting to prevent the ruin of the exiled Hannibal by Rome. Scipio intended to go to Africa, but due to the envy of others in the Senate, he was not given any additional troops beyond the Sicilian garrison. Anders dan Scipio Africanus was Aemilianus politiek capabel genoeg om de beschuldigingen te weerleggen. When the Carthaginian elephants charged, they found well laid traps before the Roman position and were greeted by Roman trumpeters, which drove many back out of confusion and fear. 1, p. 267. This Scipio Nasica's sons became praetors only shortly before the Marsic or Social War (starting 91 BC). Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the best military commanders and strategists of all time. [18], To his political opponents, he was often harsh and arrogant, but towards others singularly gracious and sympathetic. Hannibal did have a trained pool of soldiers who had fought in Italy, as well as eighty war elephants. Scipio is also referenced in the Italian national anthem. Scipio smiled and asked, 'What would you say if you had vanquished me?' In 151 v.Chr. His death is said to have taken place under suspicious circumstances, and it is possible that he either died of the lingering effects of the fever contracted while on campaign in 190 BC, or that he took his own life for causes unknown. This broke the back of Hasdrubal's army and routed his forces—an impressive feat for the young Roman versus the veteran Carthaginian general. Scipio then orchestrated a frontal attack by the rest of his infantry to draw out the remainder of the Carthaginian forces. Valerius Maximus is hostile to Scipio Africanus in other matters such as his frequent visits to the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, which Maximus saw as "fake religion. Numidia was of vital importance to Carthage, supplying both mercenaries and allied forces. At the election of a new proconsul for the command of the new army which the Romans resolved to send to Hispania, Scipio was the only man brave enough to ask for this position, no other candidates wanting the responsibility, considering it a death sentence. Chr. Africa en Aechaea werden omgevormd tot Romeinse provincies. toch, mede dankzij zijn familiegeschiedenis: de Aemilii Pauli en de Cornelii Scipiones stonden bekend als kundige generaals en staatslieden. Door slechte prestaties van zowel soldaten als officieren wisten de Romeinen de stad niet in te nemen en leden ze zware verliezen. Roman losses are uncertain but may have been considerable in light of an effort by the infantry to scale an elevation defended by Carthaginian light infantry. It is said that he ordered an inscription on his tomb: Ingrata patria, ne ossa quidem habebis ("ungrateful fatherland, you will not even have my bones"). Scipio's advocates tend to be far more suspicious and believe the number of veteran forces to remain significant. The woman's fiancé, who soon married her, responded by bringing over his tribe to support the Roman armies.[12]. Charging the rear of Hannibal's army, they caused what many historians have called the "Roman Cannae". "The story that Scipio won election both for himself and his brother is intrinsically improbable, and despite the authority of Polybius (10.4–5), has been generally rejected." [10] In spite of his youth (25 years), his noble demeanour and enthusiastic language had made so great an impression that he was unanimously elected. With his wife Aemilia Paulla (also called Aemilia Tertia), daughter of the consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus who fell at Cannae and sister of another consul Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, he had a happy and fruitful marriage. Carthage, meanwhile, had secured the friendship of the Numidian Syphax, whose advance compelled Scipio to abandon the siege of Utica and dig in on the shore between there and Carthage. The couple had no children, and Sempronia grew to hate her husband after he condoned the murder of her brother Tiberius in 132 BC. Bust tentatively identified as Scipio Africanus, formerly attributed to. However, it is not certain that he was actually buried at Liternum, and no contemporary accounts of his death or funeral exist. In 211 BC, both Scipio's father, Publius Scipio, and uncle, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, were killed at the Battle of the Upper Baetis in Spain against Hannibal's brother, Hasdrubal Barca. na 8 maanden tot uithongering en zelfmoord van de bevolking en totale verwoesting van de stad, waarmee het laatste verzet op het Iberisch Schiereiland gebroken was. [7], Scipio offered himself as a candidate for aedilis curulis in 213 BC alongside his cousin Marcus Cornelius Cethegus. None of Scipio's descendants, apart from Scipio Aemilianus—his wife's nephew who became his adoptive grandson—came close to matching his political career or his military successes. [citation needed]. His greatest military achievement was the defeat of Hannibal at the Battle of Zama (near modern Zama, Tunisia) in 202 BC. Roman javelins were used to good effect, and the sharp traps caused further disorder among the elephants. [citation needed] This high-handed act shamed the prosecution, and it appears that the case against Lucius was dismissed, though Lucius would again be prosecuted, and this time convicted, after the death of Scipio. Scipio's conquest of Carthaginian Iberia culminated in the Battle of Ilipa (near Alcalá del Río, Spain) in 206 BC against Hannibal's brother Mago Barca. The granddaughter of Gaius Gracchus, Fulvia, was also unusually prominent for a Roman woman in the affairs of the late republic, marrying Publius Clodius, Gaius Curio and Mark Antony in turn. Scipio feared that the armies of Mago and Gisco would enter the field and surround his small army. Scipio's mysterious death in 129 BC, at the age of 56, was blamed by some on his wife, and by others on his political rivals. The elder, Cornelia Africana Major, married her second cousin Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum (son of the consul of 191 BC who was himself son of Scipio's elder paternal uncle Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus). Scipio refused to accept demands for him to become perpetual consul and dictator. Disillusioned by the ingratitude of his peers, Scipio left Rome and retired from public life at his villa in Liternum. Despite the popular support that Scipio commanded, there were renewed attempts to bring him to trial, but these appear to have been deflected by his future son-in-law, Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus, the Elder. Het hoogtepunt daarvan was de belegering van Carthago, die aanvankelijk heel slecht verliep. In 209 BC, Scipio fought his first set piece battle, driving back Hasdrubal Barca from his position at Baecula on the upper Guadalquivir. Scipio is mentioned four times in Dante's Divine Comedy: in "Inferno"—Canto XXXI, in "Purgatorio"—Canto XXIX, and in "Paradiso"—Cantos VI and XXVII. Om aan te geven dat hij zoon was van Aemilius Paulus, hield hij ook het nomen gentile Aemilianus. After the battle, with the other consul surviving elsewhere, Scipio and Appius Claudius Pulcher, as military tribunes, took charge of some 10,360 survivors. During the Battle of Ticinus, he saved his father's life by "charging the encircling force alone with reckless daring. Livy continues, "On Scipio's again asking him whom he regarded as the third, Hannibal, without any hesitation, replied, 'Myself.' Some of the Roman Senate, championed by Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator ("the Delayer"), opposed the mission. One anecdote tells of how Scipio pressed into service several hundred Sicilian nobles to create a cavalry force. On his return to Hispania, Scipio had to quell a mutiny at Sucro which had broken out among his troops. Hasdrubal had not noticed Scipio's hidden reserves of cavalry moving behind enemy lines, and a Roman cavalry charge created a double envelopment on either flank led by cavalry commander Gaius Laelius and Scipio himself. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, "Barba – NumisWiki, The Collaborative Numismatics Project". Scipio's great-grandfather, Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus, and grandfather Lucius Cornelius Scipio, had both been consuls and censors. The march from Handel's setting, entitled Scipione, remains the regimental slow march of the British Grenadier Guards. "[29], Metellus Scipio, a descendant of Scipio, commanded legions against Julius Caesar in Africa until his defeat at the Battle of Thapsus in 49 BC. [18] With Scipio's consent, Hannibal was allowed to become the civic leader of Carthage, which the Cato family did not forget. The resulting infantry clash was fierce and bloody, with neither side achieving local superiority. Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due largely to Roman distrust of the Carthaginians as a result of the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, the breach of protocols which ended the First Punic War (known as Punic Faith), and a perceived breach in contemporary military etiquette due to Hannibal's numerous ambushes.

Wie Ist Peter Alexander Gestorben, Alma Stay All Night, Venom Let There Be Carnage Trailer Deutsch, Oh Du Fröhliche Text Pdf, Ralf Moeller Villa, Leonard Cohen - Bird On The Wire, Schlagzeuger Münchner Philharmoniker, Outbreak Deutsch Film, Die Zeit Iq, Kurvendiskussion Aufgaben Mit Lösungen Abitur, Liebeskummer Lieder 2019,