harry s truman full name

[73], With the help of the Kansas City Democratic machine led by Tom Pendergast, Truman was elected in 1922 as County Court judge of Jackson County's eastern district—Jackson County's three-judge court included judges from the western district (Kansas City), the eastern district (the county outside Kansas City), and a presiding judge elected countywide. [29] He was informed by attorneys in the Kansas City area that his education and experience were probably sufficient to receive a license to practice law. [123] The Soviet Union declared war on Japan on August 9 and invaded Manchuria. Truman surrounded himself with his old friends, and appointed several to high positions that seemed well beyond their competence, including his two secretaries of the treasury, Fred Vinson and John Snyder. He served as a United States Senator from Missouri (1935–45) and briefly as Vice President (1945) before he succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945 upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. When Truman dropped to 32 percent in the polls, Democratic Arkansas Senator William Fulbright suggested that Truman resign; the president said he did not care what Senator "Halfbright" said. [his journal entry after visiting Berlin shortly after VE Day.] He was criticized for not recognizing Vietnam as an independent country in 1945. [48] He then ordered his men to open fire, and their attack destroyed the enemy battery. The final tally showed the president had secured 303 electoral votes, Dewey 189, and Thurmond only 39. [313] In 1991, he was inducted into the Hall of Famous Missourians, and a bronze bust depicting him is on permanent display in the rotunda of the Missouri State Capitol. In 1956, Truman traveled to Europe with his wife. Good-bye. Pictured on a commerative 4 cent postage label issued by the (now defunct) Independent Postal System of America in 1973. [54] Most of the soldiers he commanded in the war were Catholics, and one of his close friends was the 129th Field Artillery's chaplain, Monsignor L. Curtis Tiernan. Liberal opposition to Spain had faded after the Wallace element broke with the Democratic Party in 1948; the CIO became passive on the issue. [302] Truman was also a member of Sons of the American Revolution (SAR)[303] and the Sons of Confederate Veterans. During the Korean War, a soldier was killed and had received the Purple Heart for his heroic duties. RG407: Records of the Adjutant General's Office: Military Personnel File of Harry S. Truman, Subject Files. Once Truman left the White House, his only income was his old army pension: $112.56 per month (equivalent to $1,076 in 2019). [95] According to the Senate's historical minutes, in leading the committee, "Truman erased his earlier public image as an errand-runner for Kansas City politicos", and "no senator ever gained greater political benefits from chairing a special investigating committee than did Missouri's Harry S. [65] He was an inactive reservist from the early 1940s until retiring as a colonel in the then redesignated U.S. Army Reserve on January 20, 1953. [89][90], The committee reportedly saved as much as $15 billion (equivalent to $220 billion in 2019),[91][92][93][94] and its activities put Truman on the cover of Time magazine. His closest friend in the White House was his military aide Harry H. Vaughan, who was criticized for trading access to the White House for expensive gifts. Truman's administration engaged in an internationalist foreign policy and renounced isolationism. Also critical were the contacts he had made statewide in his capacity as a county official, member of the Masons, military reservist, and member of the American Legion. In England, he met with Churchill and received an honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree from Oxford University. Truman decided he did not need formal authorization from Congress, believing that most legislators supported his position; this would come back to haunt him later, when the stalemated conflict was dubbed "Mr. Truman's War" by legislators. Collazo was wounded and stopped before he entered the house. Whenever a fellow tells me he's bipartisan. Charles de Gaulle had threatened Truman that France and Italy were in danger of going Communist, and the British helped the French reinvade their colony so they could justify retaking Malaya. Formed the NSA (National Security Agency) in a classified memo in 1953, as well as the Department of Defense (DoD) and the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency, the nation's first peacetime intelligence agency) via the National Security Act of 1947. He has never been listed lower than ninth, and was ranked fifth in a C-SPAN poll in 2009.[295]. [138][139], Truman cooperated closely with the Republican leaders on foreign policy, but fought them bitterly on domestic issues. (January 15, 1953), Truman was not given a middle name, only the initial, James M. McCormick, and Eugene R. Wittkopf. NATO's goals were to contain Soviet expansion in Europe and to send a clear message to communist leaders that the world's democracies were willing and able to build new security structures in support of democratic ideals. The Supreme Court found Truman's actions unconstitutional, however, and reversed the order in a major separation-of-powers decision, Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (1952). The costs of the war effort had been enormous, and Truman was intent on diminishing military services as quickly as possible to curtail the government's military expenditures. In 1949, Truman described American communist leaders, whom his administration was prosecuting, as "traitors", but in 1950 he vetoed the McCarran Internal Security Act. [67], After his wartime service, Truman returned to Independence, where he married Bess Wallace on June 28, 1919. A politician is a man who understands government, and it takes a politician to run a government. It was the hardest decision I ever had to make. He approved Ernest Bevin's plan to supply the blockaded city by air. [215] Truman announced on January 5, 1950, that the United States would not engage in any dispute involving the Taiwan Strait, and that he would not intervene in the event of an attack by the PRC. Japan agreed to surrender the following day.[124][125]. [256], Eisenhower gained the Republican nomination, with Senator Nixon as his running mate, and campaigned against what he denounced as Truman's failures: "Korea, communism and corruption". [280] Kennedy responded with a press conference where he bluntly rebuked Truman's advice. [77] In the primary, Truman defeated Congressmen John J. Cochran and Jacob L. Milligan with the solid support of Jackson County, which was crucial to his candidacy. [jokingly to Eisenhower who had asked before they toured the White House whether he should sign the guestbook] Definitely. [30], While serving as president in 1947, Truman applied for a license to practice law. Truman believed this would entail an unacceptable risk of war. He and Mrs. Truman survived solely on his military pension for service in World War I. [33] Despite attempts by the men to intimidate him into quitting, Truman succeeded by making his corporals and sergeants accountable for discipline. [48] His actions were credited with saving the lives of 28th Division soldiers who otherwise would have come under fire from the Germans. When a national rail strike threatened in May 1946, Truman seized the railroads in an attempt to contain the issue, but two key railway unions struck anyway. He promised to back them up if they performed capably, and reduce them to private if they did not. [279], On December 5, 1972, Truman was admitted to Kansas City's Research Hospital and Medical Center with pneumonia. His middle name, "S", honors his grandfathers, Anderson Shipp Truman and Solomon Young. Their Zodiac sign is ♉Taurus.They are considered the most important person in history born with the first name of Harry. [63] Truman protested his reassignment, which led to his resumption of regimental command. Two years selling automobile club memberships convinced him that a public service career was safer for a family man approaching middle age, and he planned a run for presiding judge in 1926. [35] He was described as 5 feet 10 inches tall, gray eyed, dark haired and of light complexion. Immediately after its first post-FDR convention, the Democratic Party seemed to be disintegrating. [68] The couple had one child, Mary Margaret Truman. Skidmore added that the presidential papers legislation and the founding of his library "was the culmination of his interest in history. [105], Truman had been vice president for 82 days when President Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945. Truman responded he did not want "to appear to be trying to get around Congress and use extra-Constitutional powers," and added that it was "up to Congress whether such a resolution should be introduced. The appointment confirmed Pendergast's control over federal patronage jobs in Missouri and marked the zenith of his power. Southern Jurisdiction Headquarters in Washington D.C.[300][301] He was also a member of the Shriners and the Royal Order of Jesters, two affiliated bodies of Masonry. In 1953 he made a well remembered departing speech from the end platform of the Baltimore & Ohio Rairload's National Limited train on leaving Washington, DC, for his home town of Independence, Missouri. Service File, 1917-1957 [1 of 3]", Announcement of Harry S. Truman's Promotion to Captain, May 2, 1918, "FAQ: Was President Truman the first Baptist president? |  First U.S. President to appear on television delivering an address from the White House (October 5, 1947). On domestic issues, bills endorsed by Truman faced opposition from a conservative Congress, but his administration successfully guided the U.S. economy through the post-war economic challenges. [281], In late 1963, when Lyndon B. Johnson had just become president, Truman wrote a letter to the Washington Post calling for the CIA's responsibilities to be scaled back significantly: "For some time I have been disturbed by the way the CIA has been diverted from its original assignment. Truman's approval ratings plummeted, and he faced calls for his impeachment from, among others, Senator Robert A. Had universities and villages named after him. Then if anything is missing we'll know who to blame. [195], On June 25, 1950, the North Korean army under Kim Il-sung invaded South Korea, starting the Korean War. [26] Truman occasionally derived some income from these enterprises, but none proved successful in the long term. "[254][255] Eisenhower defeated Stevenson decisively in the general election, ending 20 years of Democratic presidents. He attended both Law school and Business school but dropped out of both. On July 1, 1996, Northeast Missouri State University became Truman State University—to mark its transformation from a teachers' college to a highly selective liberal arts university and to honor the only Missourian to become president. ", May, Ernest R. (2002) "1947–48: When Marshall Kept the U.S. out of War in China. [179] Campaign manager William J. Bray said Truman took this advice, and spoke personally and passionately, sometimes even setting aside his notes to talk to Americans "of everything that is in my heart and soul. [308] The University of Missouri's Missouri Tigers athletic programs have an official mascot named Truman the Tiger. Truman later said he intended to propose again, but he wanted to have a better income than that earned by a farmer. MacArthur meanwhile returned to the United States to a hero's welcome, and addressed a joint session of Congress, a speech the president called "a bunch of damn bullshit. [161] Truman recognized the State of Israel on May 14, 1948, eleven minutes after it declared itself a nation. [47] They advanced with difficulty over pitted terrain to follow the infantry, and set up an observation post west of Cheppy. In 1945, he was made a 33° Sovereign Grand Inspector General and an Honorary Member of the supreme council at the Supreme Council A.A.S.R. [134], His staff was stunned, but top aide Clark Clifford revised the original draft and Truman delivered a toned down version of the speech to Congress. [33], Truman's unit joined in a massive prearranged assault barrage on September 26, 1918, at the opening of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Many of Truman's family had either owned slaves, held pro-slavery views, or openly supported the Confederacy, and Truman grew up in an environment that harbored many racist views. He developed multiple organ failure, fell into a coma, and died at 7:50 a.m. on December 26, at the age of 88.[284][259]. He later defended the patronage decisions by saying that "by offering a little to the machine, [he] saved a lot". [33], The war was a transformative experience in which Truman manifested his leadership qualities. Referred to the White House as "the big white prison". [157], Palestine was secondary to the goal of protecting the "Northern Tier" of Greece, Turkey, and Iran from communism, as promised by the Truman Doctrine. Taft. [70][71] The note had risen and fallen in value as it was bought and sold, interest accumulated and Truman made payments, so by the time the last bank to hold it failed, it was worth nearly $9,000. [248], Executive Order 9980, also in 1948, made it illegal to discriminate against persons applying for civil service positions based on race. [236] Truman submitted a reorganization plan to reform the IRB; Congress passed it, but the corruption was a major issue in the 1952 presidential election.[237][238]. The waste and profiteering he saw led him to use his chairmanship of the Committee on Military Affairs Subcommittee on War Mobilization to start investigations into abuses while the nation prepared for war. He hinted to Joseph Stalin that the United States was about to use a new kind of weapon against the Japanese. When he returned to Independence, Missouri, after choosing not to seek another term, there were no pensions at the time granted to former Presidents. [74][75], In 1933, Truman was named Missouri's director for the Federal Re-Employment program (part of the Civil Works Administration) at the request of Postmaster General James Farley. Truman did not know what to do about China, where the Nationalists and Communists were fighting a large-scale civil war. Upon leaving the presidency, Truman returned to Independence, Missouri, to live at the Wallace home he and Bess had shared for years with her mother. '[233], In response to a labor/management impasse arising from bitter disagreements over wage and price controls, Truman instructed his Secretary of Commerce, Charles W. Sawyer, to take control of a number of the nation's steel mills in April 1952. [40][41], In mid-1918, about one million soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces were in France. The addition was unpopular. [148], Although he had little personal expertise on foreign matters, Truman listened closely to his top advisors, especially George Marshall and Dean Acheson. In 2000, the headquarters for the State Department, built in the 1930s but never officially named, was dedicated as the Harry S Truman Building. After a review of information available to Truman about the presence of espionage activities in the U.S. government, Democratic Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan concluded that Truman was "almost wilfully obtuse" concerning the danger of U.S. [197] Truman promptly urged the United Nations to intervene; it did, authorizing troops under the UN flag led by U.S. General Douglas MacArthur. Lucas stated Congress supported the use of force, the formal resolution would pass but was unnecessary, and consensus in Congress was to acquiesce. On December 6, 1950, Washington Post music critic Paul Hume wrote a critical review of a concert by the president's daughter Margaret Truman: Miss Truman is a unique American phenomenon with a pleasant voice of little size and fair quality ... [she] cannot sing very well ... is flat a good deal of the time—more last night than at any time we have heard her in past years ... has not improved in the years we have heard her ... [and] still cannot sing with anything approaching professional finish. Chambers did not allege any spying during the Truman presidency. A week after the funeral, foreign dignitaries and Washington officials attended a memorial service at Washington National Cathedral. In September 1940, during his Senate re-election campaign, Truman was elected Grand Master of the Missouri Grand Lodge of Freemasonry; Truman said later that the Masonic election assured his victory in the general election. After brief initial success, the store went bankrupt during the recession of 1921. Harry Truman & Battery D, 129th Field Artillery In Action in the Argonne", "Soldier from Independence: Harry S. Truman and the Great War", "Capt. Taft killed the bill in the Senate. Harry Truman, Artilleryman and Future President", "Presidency: How Do Historians Evaluate the Administration of Harry Truman? I've come to the conclusion that you are an 'eight ulcer man on four ulcer pay.' I just told the truth, and they thought it was hell. Truman and his brother Vivian later worked as clerks at the National Bank of Commerce in Kansas City. However, he did not pursue it, because he won election as presiding judge. [314] [71] Jacobson and Truman remained close friends even after their store failed, and Jacobson's advice to Truman on Zionism later played a role in the U.S. Government's decision to recognize Israel. Domestic Politics in the Early Cold War Era, 1947–1961", "Harry S. Truman collected news and commentary", Newspaper clippings about Harry S. Truman, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, Federal Bureau of Investigation Records: The Vault – Harry S. Truman, Essays on Harry S. Truman, each member of his cabinet and First Lady, National Archives and Records Administration, "Records of the Adjutant General's Office", 1952 Puerto Rican constitutional referendum, Presidential Library, Museum, and gravesite, Harry S. Truman home and National Historic Site, United States Senate election in Missouri, 1934, 1952 Democratic Party presidential primaries, United States Senator (Class 1) from Missouri, Oldest living President of the United States, United States Senate Democratic Conference Secretary, Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, Democratic Legislative Campaign Committee, 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972, Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harry_S._Truman&oldid=991031422, 20th-century Presidents of the United States, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway people, County executives of Jackson County, Missouri, Democratic Party Presidents of the United States, Democratic Party (United States) presidential nominees, Democratic Party (United States) vice presidential nominees, Democratic Party Vice Presidents of the United States, National Guard of the United States officers, Candidates in the 1948 United States presidential election, Candidates in the 1952 United States presidential election, 1944 United States vice-presidential candidates, University of Missouri–Kansas City alumni, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles tagged with the inline citation overkill template from October 2020, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the National Archives and Records Administration, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with USCongress identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [48], In other action during the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, Truman's battery provided support for George S. Patton's tank brigade,[51] and fired some of the last shots of the war on November 11, 1918. He refused to compromise the dignity of the office. And they admire the Government of the United States so much that they would like to buy it. I know he's going to vote against me. He is brought up in the Billy Joel's "We Didn't Start The Fire.". [112][113], Shortly after taking the oath of office, Truman spoke to reporters: "Boys, if you ever pray, pray for me now. Truman rejected MacArthur's request to attack Chinese supply bases north of the Yalu, but MacArthur promoted his plan to Republican house leader Joseph Martin, who leaked it to the press. [177] For his running mate, Truman accepted Kentucky Senator Alben W. Barkley, though he really wanted Justice William O. Douglas, who turned down the nomination. [145], As a Wilsonian internationalist, Truman supported Roosevelt's policy in favor of the creation of the United Nations and included Eleanor Roosevelt on the delegation to the UN's first General Assembly. While Truman and Eisenhower had previously been on good terms, Truman felt annoyed Eisenhower did not denounce Joseph McCarthy during the campaign. [267] For the memoirs, Truman received a flat payment of $670,000, and had to pay two-thirds of that in tax; he calculated he got $37,000 after he paid his assistants.

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